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</span> <script> function show2(){ if (!document.all&&!document.getElementById) return thelement=document.getElementById? document.getElementById("tick2"): document.all.tick2 var Digital=new Date() var hours=Digital.getHours() var minutes=Digital.getMinutes() var seconds=Digital.getSeconds() if (minutes<=9) minutes="0"+minutes if (seconds<=9) seconds="0"+seconds var ctime=hours+":"+minutes+":"+seconds+" - " thelement.innerHTML="<i><b><style='font-size:14;color:black;'>"+ctime+"</b></i>" setTimeout("show2()",1000) } window.onload=show2 //--> </script> <script> var mydate=new Date() var year=mydate.getYear() if (year < 1000) year+=1900 var day=mydate.getDay() var month=mydate.getMonth() var daym=mydate.getDate() if (daym<10) daym="0"+daym var dayarray=new Array("Sunday","Monday","Tuesday","Wednesday","Thursday","Friday","Saturday") var montharray=new Array("January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September","October","November","December") document.write("<small><font color='000000' face='Arial'><i><b>"+dayarray[day]+", "+daym+" "+montharray[month]+" "+year+"</font></small>") </script> </p> </a><blockquote> <h1 class="spec"><u>THE ASKLEPIEION OF KOS</u>.</h1> <fieldset style="BORDER-RIGHT: #145A03 3px solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 6px; BORDER-TOP: #31CD0D 3px solid; PADDING-LEFT: 6px; PADDING-BOTTOM: 6px; BORDER-LEFT: #31CD0D 3px solid; WIDTH: 100%; PADDING-TOP: 0px; BORDER-BOTTOM: #145A03 3px solid;"> <h2 class="spec">&nbsp;&nbsp;<u>Strabo's testimony</u>:</h2> <p class="just"> The Asklepieion lies around 3,5 km South West of Kos town, in a place where the gradual height increase of the ground (90,1 m, above sea level) is substantially important. Our knowledge about the Asklepieion and its surroundings comes from three sources:</p> <ul> <li>Literary (ancient writers' texts). <li>Archaeological (inscriptions and other finds). <li>Toponymic (names of places).</ul> <p align="justify"> Strabo (67 BC - 23 AD), who was the main geographer of ancient times, provided us with lucid information about this monument. He specifically wrote in his "Geographika" (XIV, 657):<ul> <p class="just"> "The sacred Asklepieion lies in the suburbs of the town and is full of votive offerings, among which is the "Antigonos" painting by Apelles. There was, also, the famous painting "Anadyomene Aphrodite", which is now in Rome, dedicated by Augustus Caesar to his father. It is said that the Romans let 100 talents off the taxes, paid by the people, for this painting. It is, also, said that Hippocrates, by thoroughly studying the votive plaques (at the Asclepieion), learned a lot about ways of curing diseases ..."</p></ul> Strabo provides us with three important pieces of information: <ul> <li><p class="just"> The first one is about the position of the Asklepieion. <li><p align="justify">The second one is about the decoration of the Asklepieion with magnificent paintings such as "One-eyed Antigonos" and "Anadyomene Aphrodite" painted by Apelles, a famous painter of Ancient times.<br>This piece of information confirms a previous description of these paintings by the Koan poet Herondas (3rd cent. BC), writer of the mimes. <li><p align="justify">And, finally, the third piece of information is about the relation between Hippocrates and the Asklepieion, the records of which he studied to practice his healing methods, as it was said. </p></ul> </fieldset> <br> <fieldset style="BORDER-RIGHT: #145A03 3px solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 6px; BORDER-TOP: #31CD0D 3px solid; PADDING-LEFT: 6px; PADDING-BOTTOM: 6px; BORDER-LEFT: #31CD0D 3px solid; WIDTH: 100%; PADDING-TOP: 0px; BORDER-BOTTOM: #145A03 3px solid;"> <h2 class="spec">&nbsp;&nbsp;<u>The discovery of the Asklepieion</u>:</h2> <p class="just"> The Asklepieion of Kos remained buried for about 1350 years after the destructive earthquake in AD 554/551, described by Agathias Scholastikos". <br>It was discovered by the German archaeologist Rudolf Herzog (1871-1953), with the significant help of Iakobos Zarraftis (1845-1933) - a fine scholar of antiquity - on October 9th, 1902.<br><br> The reason for the archaeological excavations was the publication, in 1891, of an Egyptian papyrus with Herondas' "mimes", the fourth of which thoroughly describes the sculptures and paintings of the Asklepios' temple in the famous Asklepieion.<br><br> W.R. Paton, an English archaeologist first came to Kos, sent by the Berlin Academy, to trace the exact position of the Asklepieion.<br><br> He was later followed by Rudolf Herzog, a German doctor of Literature, who came to Kos to conduct preliminary excavations in places near Kos town. Paton, by thoroughly studying the nameplaces of the area where the delapidated church of "Our Lady of the grove" was standing, claimed that this was probably the position of the Asklepieion.<br>Zarraftis, Herzog's assistant, agreed with Paton and conducted a preliminary excavation in that area which resulted in the discovery of the Asklepieion.<br><br>Herzog used the stratigraphy technique of excavation till 1905, that is, the gradual unearthing of the ground in layers by using delicate instruments, to discover various objects of the Hellenistic as well as the Post-hellenistic and Roman periods.<br><br>It is not known whether he conducted further excavations in this area to find remains of the classical or any other periods.<br><br> In 1928 Luciano Laurenzi, an Italian archaeologist, started excavations in the lowest level towards the east side of the first terrace (andiron) and managed, in 1930, to find the Roman Thermes (baths), only a part of which had been discovered by Herzog. Later, in 1938, Greek craftsmen started restoration works, with the help of Italian archaeologists, architects and topographers, which were stopped in 1940 due to the war. <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-01.jpg', 'popWin1', '600', '450')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-01.jpg" width="120" height="90" border="2" align="right" vspace=10 hspace=10 alt="The Roman Baths."></a> The materials used for the restoration were marble and tuffstone and the architectural structure chosen resembled the Italian architectural style. <br><br> The Italian archaeologist Luigi Morricone, who completed the excavations in the Thermes in 1937/38, discovered, near the Asklepieion, a bunch of Mycenaean weapons as well as some small mycenaean and geometric pots, probably from graves, which show the occupation of the area in earlier periods"</p> </p> </fieldset> <br> <fieldset style="BORDER-RIGHT: #145A03 3px solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 6px; BORDER-TOP: #31CD0D 3px solid; PADDING-LEFT: 6px; PADDING-BOTTOM: 6px; BORDER-LEFT: #31CD0D 3px solid; WIDTH: 100%; PADDING-TOP: 0px; BORDER-BOTTOM: #145A03 3px solid;"> <h2 class="spec">&nbsp;&nbsp;<u>The worship of Asklepios on Kos</u>:</h2> <p class="just"> We've got two versions of the worship of Asklepios, the God of Medicine, in Kos. According to Pausanias (Lakon. III. 23,6) this worship was brought to Kos by Dorian settlers coming from Epidaurus", whereas according to Herondas (mimes II, lines 95-98 and IV, lines 1-4) Asklepios' worship was brought to Kos from Trikke, in Thessaly. Ancient inscriptions state that the Asklepios' worship began in the second half of the 4th centrury BC following the Apollo worship which had begun in the 5th century BC. These inscriptions refer to a temple dedicated to "Apollo Kyparissios" (cypress-tree). These cypress-trees made up the "Holy Grove" which surrounded the temple. People weren't allowed to cut these trees down because it was believed that such an act would show great disrespect to God Apollo. This religious taboo lasted for over four centuries", An inscription of the 5th or 4th century BC reads: "Paean in the woods", Paean is related to Apollo or Asklepios. Also, the name of Asklepios is found on Koan inscriptions, either on its own or with the names of Hygieia and Epione. According to a Koan myth, Epione, being Asklepios' wife and Heracles' daughter," connected the family trees of the Asklepiads and the Heraclids, who were the supreme families of the island. The Asklepiads (priests - physicians), who were according to his biographers - ancestors of Hippocrates (460-370 BC) probably came to Kos from Epidaurus or Trikke via the Knidos peninsula. <img src="image/A1/asklepios.jpg" border=2 alt="Asklepios" align="left" vspace=5 hspace=5 width="168" height="454">Trikke, a town in Thessaly, is more possible, though, because Hippocrates" spent the last years of his life in Thessaly and died there and the Asklepiads kept pointing out their relation to "Thessaly", All the doctors of the island, from the early 4th century BC, were members of the "Asklepiads Society". There was, also, the "Koan and Knidian Asklepiads Society": The name of Asklepios is found on lists of offerings of the 3rd century BC before the name of Apollo "Kyparissios" whereas only the name "Kyparissus" remained on Koan inscriptions of the 2nd century BC. "Kyparissiotes" must have inhabited the area of the Asklepieion during the 3rd century AD. A series of coins of the 4th century AD shows that the temple existed, probably as a hospital, till late antiquity. Byzantine emperor Theodosios II's decrees, as well as the earthquake in 469 - during Leo I's reigncaused its decline and probably its conversion into a Christian temple during the 5th century AD. A devastating earthquake in 554/551 - during emperor Justinian's reign - completely destroyed the temple, which led to its desertion". <h4 align="left">"Asklepios"</h4> <p class="just"> As the years went by and due to constant geological changes, it was covered with alluvium.<br>The area around the great Asklepios' temple - on the top andiron (terrace) - was inhabited by Christians who made a cemetery and - in the early 13th century - established a church called "Our Lady of the grove", thus creating the name-place of the area. This church belonged to the Patmos Monastery" and its remains were the only ones saved till the beginning of this century when the Asklepieion was excavated by archaeologists.<br> Between the 14th and 16th centuries, remains of the Asklepieion were used as building materials by the St. John Knights. In the 18th century the whole area was turned into an orchard by the Ottomans, which was also deserted in the 19th century. </p> </fieldset> <br> <fieldset style="BORDER-RIGHT: #145A03 3px solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 6px; BORDER-TOP: #31CD0D 3px solid; PADDING-LEFT: 6px; PADDING-BOTTOM: 6px; BORDER-LEFT: #31CD0D 3px solid; WIDTH: 100%; PADDING-TOP: 0px; BORDER-BOTTOM: #145A03 3px solid;"> <h2 class="spec">&nbsp;&nbsp;<u>Description of finds and restoration works</u>:</h2> <p class="just"> The Asklepieion finds date back in the 4th century BC and they mostly belong to the Hellenistic and Post hellenistic periods. There are no finds belonging to earlier periods and this claim is based on the fact that the Asklepieion is divided into three successive terraces (andira) which is an Oriental element adapted by Greek architects who were influenced by Alexander the Great's conquests". The architectural formation of the Asklepieion was completed in four building phases:<br> - The first phase, dating back in the first half of the 3rd century BC, was just an artificial formation of the natural levels of the ground, which preserved the natural beauty ofthe landscape ",<br> - The second phase dates back in the first half of the 2nd century BC when all the buildings of Kos town were restored or reconstructed", <br> - The third phase dates back in the 1st century AD and the fourth one between the 2nd and 3rd century AD, intensely influenced by the Post - Hellenistic and Roman architecture".<br> Despite this influence, though, the Asklepieion retained its close connection to the natural surroundings and kept its placidity and balance of texture combined with the brightness and motion of style, which made it one of the most magnificent monuments of this kind and a real sight for sore eyes! <br><br> <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-04.jpg', 'popWin1', '533', '800')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-04.jpg" width="100" height="150" border="2" align="right" vspace=10 hspace=10 alt="The staircase with the parts of the original stairs."></a> The three successive terraces (andira) of the Asklepieion are joined together with restored marble staircases (parts of the ancient stairs can be seen). <br>After we climb on the 23 steps of the 1 st monumental staircase, which is 13, 15 metres wide, we reach the Propylaea and the 1 st huge rectangular terrace".<br>There used to be a colonnade of the 3rd century BC on three sides of this terrace. The foundations of this colonnade and the base of the columns as well as the clay pipes of a water reservoir can still be seen. Behind the colonnade we can see the foundations of the rooms where patients, visitors, athletes and pilgrims used to stay during the "Minor and Great Asklepieian Games of Kosi, which were held from the middle of the 3rd century BC. <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-05.jpg', 'popWin1', '533', '800')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-05.jpg" width="100" height="150" border="2" align="left" vspace=10 hspace=10 alt="The fontain with the stone statue of Pan holding the Syrinx."></a> <br>There is a retaining wall with niches on the south side of the terrace. These niches, which were restored with tuffstone, were occupied by statues such as the headless ones of Asklepios and Hygieia. There is a fountain on one of the niches. The water goes to a tank and from there, through a small water canal, to the fields surrounding the Asklepieion. There is a stone statue of Pan, holding a syrinx, above the fountain. This ancient fountain, the water of which runs even today, contributes to the authenticity of the monument.<br><br> <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-06.jpg', 'popWin1', '505', '800')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-06.jpg" width="95" height="150" border="2" align="right" vspace=5 hspace=5 alt="The base of the statue of the Koan physician Gaius Stertinius Xenophon."></a> There is a niche, to the right of the big staircase leading to the 2nd terrace, holding the base of a statue with an inscription referring to the famous Koan physician Gaius Stertinius Xenophon (l st cent. AD) who lived in the courts of emperor Claudius, was an Asklepiad priest and was honoured by Koans as a benefactor of his country. There is a little water springing from this base. This water must have been used for hydrotherapy. Herzog called this part of the Asklepieion, which was considered to be a votive offering to Asklepios, Hygieia and Epione, "The little temple of Xenophon". It is, also, said that Xenophon founded a library in the Asklepieion.<br>To the west of this little temple are two fountain bathtubs, which were, also, used for hydrotherapy. Finally, there is a small Vespasiani (toilets) at the SW end of the colonnade. <br><br> <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-02.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '390')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-02.jpg" width="300" height="146" border="2" align="right" vspace=10 hspace=10 alt="The Roman Baths."></a> On the east side of the 1st terrace are the "Thermes", remains of baths of the 3rd century AD. The Thermes is a big building with long arched halls. The thick walls were made of small stones and asbestos. Also, there are traces of painted plaster on these walls. The pools, which have marble floors, and the heated rooms can still be seen. According to L. Laurenzi these baths were made of materials taken from a hellenistic building which might have been standing in the very same place". <br><br> <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-03.jpg', 'popWin1', '600', '450')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-03.jpg" width="133" height="100" border="2" align="left" vspace=10 hspace=10 alt="The Aphrodite's premises."></a> To the left of the 1st terrace entrance and along the outer wall are five underground rooms with no windows which were called "Aphrodite's premises" by Zarraftis. These rooms were decorated with a lot of bird paintings and contained various votive statuettes. It has been hypothesised that there was a temple to Aphrodite on the same spot, holding the famous statue by Praxiteles". <br><br> We climb to the second (middle) terrace on a restored marble staircase with 30 steps, which is 9,70 metres wide. In the middle of the 2nd terrace are the remains of an Altar dated to the 3rd century BC. It was a rectangular marble creation with sculptural decoration. This altar constituted the "kernel" of the whole building synthesis of the first formation of the Asklepieion. The altar was reached up a slope from the west, thus making it easier for people to carry the sacrificial animals. There was a small colonnade around it, and next to this were the famous sculptures by the sons of Praxiteles", A lot of clay votive offerings were found there during the excavations". <br><br> <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-08.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '533')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-08.jpg" width="150" height="100" border="2" align="right" vspace=10 hspace=10 alt="The Altar."></a> The Altar, as it is preserved today, replaced a smaller one of the 4th century BC, specifically of 350-330 BC, and it was dedicated to the gods Helios, Hemera, Machaon (son of Asklepios) and "Ekata".<br>Another restoration of the altar, copying the pattern of the Great Zeus altar in "Pergamon", was done during the 2nd century BC.<br> To the west of the altar is the first small Asklepios temple (300-250 BC). It is in the Ionian style and its pedestal measures 15,07 by 8,78 metres. <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-09.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '533')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-09.jpg" width="150" height="100" border="2" align="left" vspace=10 hspace=10 alt="The Altar."></a> The two restored columns of the east side have ancient drums, the edges of which have been destroyed. In the cella of this temple, apart from the statues of Asklepios and Hygieia, was a rectangular opening lined with marble slabs: this was used as a "treasury" and patients and visitors would drop their offerings into it. It might have, also, been used as a "bank" by rich people of the time. This treasury was established, according to Schazmann's estimations, around 300-270 BC.<br><br> Beside the temple, to the west of it, is a building with two rooms, which is in the Doric style. This was the "Abaton", a "sacred house" to which entry was not permitted, where the sacred spring rose.<br><br> <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-07.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '600')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-07.jpg" width="150" height="113" border="2" align="right" vspace=5 hspace=5 alt="The Exedra."></a> The foundations of a semi-circular "platform", the Exedra, presumably used for outdoor meetings of the priests, lie to the south of the altar and in front of a restored, with tuffstone, curvilinear wall of the post hellenistic period. The niches of this wall were occupied by votive sculptures. "Antigonos" and "Aphrodite Anadyomene", works of Apelles, might have been standing in two of these niches", <br><br> To the east of the altar are the remains of another temple, built in the 2nd century AD, dedicated to Apollo. <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-10.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '533')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-10.jpg" width="150" height="100" border="2" align="left" vspace=5 hspace=5 alt="The Apollo Tempel in the Corinthian style."></a> The seven columns, which were reconstructed during the Italian occupation, are in the Corinthian style. Only two tIuted drums of the columns remind of an ancient temple. In front of the temple are some bulky pieces of the roof eaves which have drainpipes decorated with clay masks. The foundations of a building belonging to the Hellenistic period were found a little further to the east of the temple. This building might have been used as a "club".<br><br> The monumental staircase to the third terrace has 60 steps, with a break in the middle. <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-11.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '600')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-11.jpg" width="150" height="113" border="2" align="right" vspace=5 hspace=5 alt="The monumental staircase to the third terrace."></a> There are retaining walls, made of tuffstone, on both sides of the staircase. The third terrace was added to the Asklepieion in the early 2nd century BC in order to offer hospitality to the numerous patients and visitors who used to come to Kos, especially after the Panhellenic acknowledgement of the right of immunity as well as the enforcement of truce during the "Minor and Great Asklepieian Games' (music contests and athletic games), which were first held in 242 BC.<br>There is a colonnade around three of its sides with rooms only in the east and west sides. These rooms were built in the 2nd century AD replacing older timbered constructions.</p> <center> <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-000.jpg', 'popWin1', '1000', '302')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-000.jpg" width="455" height="138" border="2" align="center" vspace=5 hspace=5 alt="View from the third terrace."></a> </center> <p class="just"> In the middle of the terrace, is the great peripteral temple of Asklepios built in the Doric style in the 2nd century BC. This temple is bigger than the one of the 2nd terrace. It is 33,28 metres long and 18,79 metres wide".<br>In the ancient times, it could be seen by those approaching Kos by sea.<br>The Great temple of Asklepios dominated the whole Asklepieion! Unfortunately, <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-13.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '600')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-13.jpg" width="150" height="113" border="2" align="left" vspace=5 hspace=5 alt="View of the Tempel of Asklepios at the third terrace."></a> only the quay walls and the marble floor are preserved today.<br>On the east side there is a large marble plaque and a column capital on which a cross and the byzantine letters IC. XC Jesus Christ) have been carved. <a HREF="JAVASCRIPT:doNothing()" onClick="win1Open=displayImage('image/A1/asklep-12.jpg', 'popWin1', '800', '600')" onMouseOver="window.status='Click to display picture'; return true;" onMouseOut="window.status=''"> <img src="image/A1/asklep-12.jpg" width="150" height="113" border="2" align="right" vspace=5 hspace=5 alt="View of the rooms and the Asklepios tempel on the third terrace."></a> This was the altar of the Christian Church "Our Lady of the grove".<br> The remarkable features of this temple are its floor and the size of a column drum made of white marble", which is in the north side and its perimeter is 3,90 metres. <br><br> In the middle of the south side of the colonnade is a staircase leading to the sacred grove where, according to Pausanias", nobody was allowed to be born or die.<br>The cutting of the cypress-trees was, also, forbidden", as ancient inscriptions state". It is known that the sacrilegious senator Poplius Turullius (31 BC), one of Julius Ceasar's assassins, was sentenced to death because he had cut trees to build ships for the Roman Fleet.<br><br>The cypress - grove and the pine wood, surrounding the Asklepieion today, were planted after the unification of the island with Greece. The clay pipes of a water reservoir can also be seen on the same terrace. The water of this reservoir used to come from springs lying in the Asklepieion area as well as from other springs that were 2 km away such as the Soulu (or St Soulas) spring, from which lukewarm mineral water was flowing, and the Kokkinonero spring, with cold crystal - clear water gushing out.<br><br> Finally, on the third and last terrace are traces of a temple (temenos) belonging to the Hellenistic period. It was discovered on the top of the hill, to the south of the 3rd terrace, by Morricone just before the German occupation".<br><br> Unfortunately, the Asklepieion was plundered and even set on fire. The knights of St John converted it into a quarry. They removed building materials and used them for the construction of the Fortress. It is said that both Muslim mosques of Kos, the one in Eleftherias square and the "Loggia mosque", were made of marble and stones taken from the Asklepieion. Two lime-kilns, found by Herzog in niches of the retaining wall near the exedra ("platform"), contributed to its destruction. However, there are some remarkable finds such as:<ol type=a> <li><p align="justify">The head of a famous statue, depicting Alexander the Great on horseback, and a part of the horse's leg made of fine white marble. Also, a series of ancient coins, which were sent to the Constantinople museum, as well as a great number of coins (of the 4th century AD) that have never been on display till today. These coins show that the Asklepieion continued existing till late antiquity".</p> <li><p align="justify">Apart' from four inscriptions, honouring two Koan judges and two doctors", another 13 honorary inscriptions were found in the Asklepieion showing the Panhellenic acknowledgement of the right of immunity and the enforcement of truce (after 260 BC), during the celebrations of the "Minor Asklepieian Games', which were held annually at first, and the "Great Asklepieian Games', which were held every five years with sacrifices, music contests and athletic games honouring Asklepios. Leaders such as Ptolemy II Philadelphos, Ziailas king of Bithynia, Gelon, the son of tyrant Hieron II, Ptolemy III Euergetes as well as towns such as Lakedaimon, Messina, Thelpousa, Elis, Aigeira, Homolion, Thebes, Megara, Kassandreia, Amphipolis, Philippi, Ainos, Maroneia, Kios, lasos, Arsinoe, Neapolis, Elea are all nentioned in these inscriptions".</p> <li><p align="justify">An instrument case, a small pot and 24 surgery instruments which were found under a huge rock and which eventually became parts of private collections. Most of these instruments, two of which were made of silver and the rest of brass, are mentioned in the Hippocratic Collection (CORPUS HIPPOCRATICUM) and show that this sacred place was also an infinnary 46.</ol></p><p align="justify"> In the year 1936, the Italians constructed, to the east of the Thermes, a small building, with a pavillion and a decorative swimming-pool, for the storage and protection of the Asklepieion inscriptions.<br><br> There are parts of the Asklepieion that have not been excavated yet.<br>I. Zarraftis (The Asklepieion of Kos, Athens 1912, p. 43) claims that:<ul><li>The Stadium, where the "Great Asklepiean Games" were held and which might be lying under the big square.<li>The Theatre, which might be lying in the west wing of the Asklepieion have not been found yet".</ul>He also, claims that if the whole east wing had been excavated, remains of the sun-infirmary and air-infirmary might have come to light. Finally, the fact that the plaques on which patients used to write their names, sicknesses and medicines were not found seems quite noteworthy to him", </p> </fieldset> <br> <fieldset style="BORDER-RIGHT: #145A03 3px solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 6px; BORDER-TOP: #31CD0D 3px solid; PADDING-LEFT: 6px; PADDING-BOTTOM: 6px; BORDER-LEFT: #31CD0D 3px solid; WIDTH: 100%; PADDING-TOP: 0px; BORDER-BOTTOM: #145A03 3px solid;"> <h2 class="spec">&nbsp;&nbsp;<u>CONCLUSION</u>:</h2> <p class="just"> The unique as well as awesome architecture of this "famous and full of votive offerings" monument", the Panhellenic brilliancy of which has always been related to the Medical School of <a href="kosinfo-hippocrates.html" target="_blanc"><font size=3><b><i>Hippocrates,</i></b></font></a> and his descendants, and the unimpeded development of its natural surroundings, combined with the clarity of the insular sunlight, give the area a rare sense of mildness and nobility. This is what the thousands of visitors - pilgrims believe as they face it climbing slowly its 113 wide steps. And this is why the Asklepieion of Kos can and has to be proclamed as a Monument of Universal Cultural Heritage. </p> </fieldset> <center> <font size="1">From the "Special Edition" of "The Asklepieion of Kos" - By Vassilis S. Hatzivassiliou KOS 2000.</font> <br><br> The Re-enactment of the <a href="company-re-enactment.html" target="_blanc"> <font size=3>Oath of Hippocrates</font></a> is performed occasionally in the second terrace of Asklepieion. <br><br> <a href="images/asklemap.jpg" target=_"blanc"><font size=3>Information map of the Asklepieion. </font></a><br><br> <a href="images/asklepion.exe" target=_"blanc"><font size=3>General view of the 1st terrace.</font></a> <br><br> <a href="#toppage"><font size=3>Back to the Top of the page!</font></a><br><br> Take me <a href="javascript:history.back()"><font size=3>back</font></a>! </center> <br><br> </td> </tr> <tr> <td background="images/menu/table-main.gif" width="156" height="3"></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td background="images/menu/table-main.gif" width="156"><a href="congresses-links.html" onmouseover="di('Ncongressesbutton', 'Ncongressesbutton_over','images/menu/congresses-right.gif' );" onmouseout="di('Ncongressesbutton', 'Ncongressesbutton_up', 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